Hysteroscopy & Laparoscopy

What is hysteroscopy?

Hysteroscopy is an examination of the endometrial cavity. It is a recommended diagnostic and treatment procedure for infertility investigation. It is used to diagnose and treat various pathological conditions of the endometrial cavity, such as polyps, uterine fibroids, and uterine septum. Hysteroscopy is a minimal invasive procedure and is conducted without incisions in a matter of minutes. Post-operative pain is negligible, and the patient can resume her normal activities within a few hours.


  • Itching
  • Pain caused by lumps
  • Bleeding

How is hysteroscopy performed?

Hysteroscopy is initiated by inserting a magnifying telescope in the endometrial cavity, through vagina and cervix, inside the uterine cavity. During the procedure, an overview of the cervical lumen, a panoramic imaging of the endometrial cavity, a detection of tubal ostia and a thorough investigation of all pathological findings are obtained consecutively. Using an appropriate light source and a high-resolution camera, the capability exists to concurrently monitor the endometrial cavity contents, print photographs and record the procedure to a DVD.

In which cases is a hysteroscopy recommended?

The prevalent indications for a hysteroscopy are the following:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding, where an evaluation of the pathology of the endometrial cavity is recommended to rule out malignant tumours.
  • Abnormally painful menstruation and pelvic pain.
  • Unusually divergent or lightly flowing menstruation.
  • Morphological anomalies of the uterus such as a uterine septum.

Hysteroscopy is also recommended to women experiencing infertility conditions:

  • To evaluate a previous hysterosalpingography or ultrasonographic finding: Adhesions, polyps, uterine fibroids et al.
  • To investigate continuous miscarriages.
  • When pregnancy has not been achieved following two continuous IVF treatment cycles.
  • To investigate unexplained infertility, combined with a laparoscopy.

When should a hysteroscopy be performed?

Hysteroscopy is ideally performed between the 8th and 12th day of period, allowing us to evaluate the quality of the endometrial system which is at its productive activity stage during that time. Performing a hysteroscopy on the second phase of a period is not recommended, as the procedure may harm a potential pregnancy in its early stages.

What is a laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy is a method of surgical diagnosis and treatment. It is not done via an open surgery approach, but instead the doctor, through small ‘holes’ examines directly the organs of the abdomen and collects useful information using the appropriate laparoscopic tools. These tools have a tube-like shape, and a small diameter thus making it easier to be inserted through the abdominal wall, leaving the smallest scar possible. Laparoscopic surgery is applicable to the entire range of issues of the intra-abdominal region, with some exceptions.

How is a laparoscopy performed?

The woman undergoes general anaesthesia. The laparoscopy starts with a small incision at the umbilicus, through which a thin needle passes, which is used to ‘inflate’ the abdomen, with 2 to 3 litres of gas. When the abdomen swells like a ‘balloon’, the organs of the abdomen are moved away from the abdominal wall and then we insert the laparoscope. The laparoscope consists of a thin-diameter tube, 5 or 10 mm, that contains a series of lenses and a small camera at one end. When we insert the laparoscope, the surgeon examines the pelvic organs from a monitor where the image from the camera is projected. Thus, the surgeon can see in detail all the organs located in the pelvis, such as the uterus, the ligaments, the fallopian tubes, the ovaries, the bladder, the peritoneum and other organs. After the laparoscopy ends, all the gas that was inserted to the abdomen is ejected, and the abdomen reverts to its normal size. In the case where laparoscopy is used for a laparoscopic surgery procedure, 2 or 3 thin tubes can be inserted in the lower abdomen. Through these tubes, the surgeon inserts surgical instruments to perform the surgery.

When is laparoscopy used?

In gynaecology, laparoscopy is used as a diagnostic method in many situations such as:

  • Unexplained infertility.
  • Check of tubal patency.
  • Endometriosis.
  • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • Acute abdominal pain.
  • Polycystic ovaries.
  • Ectopic pregnancy.
  • Structural defects of the womb and its accessories.
  • Taking biopsies from different points of the abdominal cavity.

Also, the usage of laparoscopy for therapeutic purposes has a place in the following situations:

  • Removal of benign cysts of the ovaries.
  • Complete hysterectomy.
  • Salpingectomy and fallopian incision.
  • Removal of an ectopic pregnancy.
  • Removal of endometriosis hotbeds.
  • Removing of endometriosis cysts from the ovaries.
  • Removal of uterine fibroids.
  • Treatment of adhesions.
  • Treatment of assorted twists.

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Hysteroscopy & Laparascopy | Dr. Maria

Frequently Asked Questions

This procedure is suitable for women suffering from vaginal relaxation, which could be caused by multiple childbirths, hereditary factors, or modern way of life (i.e. lack of exercise, sudden large-scale weight loss, smoking, etc).

Laser Vaginoplasty is certainly superior and more advantageous than the traditional method of colporrhaphy, even when a medical grid is used. Using a foreign object (grid) in this sensitive area may cause a permanent and unpleasant sensation during sexual intercourse in the post-operation period, especially so in the cases of particularly active women sexually. This situation is attributed to mucosal erosion of the area, contributing to hypersensitivity of the area as well as pain associated with friction. On the contrary, when Vaginoplasty takes place, no foreign objects are used, and the tissues are quickly restored to a tighter, less relaxed state. As such, a female patient in the post-operation period will be able to increase her sexual gratification as well as enjoy her body exponentially.

Through this particular cosmetic surgery procedure, you can expect a dramatic increase of pleasure achieved during sexual intercourse and a notable improvement of your orgasmic frequency and intensity.

Laser operations are clearly superior to traditional, scalpel-based, procedures. Using laser equipment, a completely blood-free and painless procedure becomes possible. Surgical incisions and tissue removal using laser offers extreme precision and guarantees a natural result without scars or bruises formed in the area. Recovery and return to daily activities in a normal manner both happen very quickly following the operation. The specific laser equipment used in operations is a low-voltage laser, unable to cause any tissue damage and is not associated with dangerous results.

The procedure's duration – which, depending on location, is performed either at our clinic, or at a suitably equipped external clinic - ranges from 1 to 2 hours depending on the individual case.

Dr. Bader is an expert in the field of vaginal surgery, cosmetic operations in the vaginal and perineal areas, anatomic malformations of the areas, and urine incontinence. He is an internationally renowned cosmetic surgeon with extensive surgical experience, operating in three countries in a regular basis, and elsewhere on request. Dr. Bader is a pioneer in his field and maintains regular presence in international conferences and symposia, where he shares new developments about techniques and procedures with world-class cosmetic surgeons.

Cost is individually quoted depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient. Learn more about pricing.

Stem cell vaginal rejuvenation aims to increase elasticity of the vaginal mucosa and make a healthier sexual life a reality. The procedure is particularly recommended to women facing intense problems with vaginal dryness, or wishing to enhance their sexual gratification. Should sexual gratification enhancement be the objective of the procedure, stem cell vaginal rejuvenation can be combined with a stem cell transfer and infusion in the clitoris area, in order to increase its sensitivity. Vaginoplasty can furthermore take place alongside stem cell vaginal rejuvenation to ensure the most far-reaching and perfect results.

Stem cell vaginal rejuvenation begins with a small-scale liposuction from an appropriate body location (e.g. belly, thighs, etc). Following this, using advanced medical equipment, the collected fat is processed and the elements containing stem cells are properly isolated. Stem cells are collected and infused inside the appropriate areas of the vagina in the final stage of the procedure.

Stem cell vaginal rejuvenation usually takes place under local anaesthesia or light sedation. This method has the added advantage of not requiring the patient's prolonged stay in the clinic, and complete recovery is generally accelerated.

The procedure's duration – which, depending on location, is performed either at our clinic, or at a suitably equipped external clinic - is usually 1.5 hours but may be adjusted depending on the individual case.